Scotch-Irish-L ArchivesArchiver > Scotch-Irish > 1997-12 > 0881508695
From: "Edward Andrews" <>
Subject: Re: Ulster 1642
Date: Sun, 7 Dec 1997 15:51:00 0
> Date: Sat, 6 Dec 1997 21:27:19 -0500
> From: John Giacoletti <>
> Subject: Ulster 1642
> To: Scotch-Irish <>
> It was in this decade starting in 1642 that the Presbyterian form of church
> government became established in Ulster by the ministers who where placed
> with the troops. It was also the period of conformists renouncing "The
> Black Oath" and the very widespread adherence to the National League and
> Covenant. It was at the end of this period in 1653 that the first
> reference to my Cowans appears in the "Declaration ....at Carrickfergus" by
> which Cromwell was attempting to disperse the Presbyterians because of
> their support of the monarchy. And this John Cown is located in County
> And please, I welcome constructive criticism in the way I may have
> presented the information but I am not out seeking chastisement,
> belittlement or dismissal of the questions by way of definition.
John has stumbled into a veritable minefield. I often think that a
lot of the tension between genealogists and historians cold be
reduced by the introduction of courses like History for
Genealogists, in the same way that you have French or German for
scientists, or Statistics for Social Scientists. (I can still work out
a SD by the short method thank God for Computers) :-)
Basically the problem with John's post is that he is trying to take
at one bite a highly indigestible piece of History.
If I draw a cartoon of the events, then John can colour in the very
real information which he has, and perhaps make some sense of it.
Unfortunately English History books tend to ignore what was
happening in Ireland, in 1641, as do Scottish ones. Irish ones
usually tell the story with reference to England. The best sources
are often histories of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, They are
however so full of Axe grindings, that they have to be treated with
One of the Results of the signing of the National Covenant in 1638,
were the Bishops wars. Here Charles' Kingdom of Scotland was at war
with his Kingdom of England, and the Scots won. As a by product some
of the Scots regiments took Ministers as army Chaplains.
There was an Irish dimension to this war Part of Charles' plans
involved the invasion of Scotland from Ireland with the Army lead by
Wentworth (also known as the Earl of Stafford).
Wentworth who had been created Lord Deputy in 1633, was active
against everything which stood in the way of royal absolutism. Thus it
was that he was very active in imposing upon the Church of Ireland,
which had a number of "Presbyterians" from Scotland, Laud's Reforms.
It was the action of Wentworth against the Scots in the North which
lead to the Eagle Wing incident.
When Scotland signed the covenant and went to war with England
Wentworth reacted with measures against the Scots, which included the
"Black Oath" in 1638. While it was in part against the Covenant, it
was also that the person would never oppose the King's commands.
As well as acting against the Scots, Wentworth acted against the Old
English. He planned further plantations in Connacht Clare and
Having fallen out with just about everyone in Ireland, but still
supported by the King, Wentworth was impeached and executed in May
The state of the country was disturbed there was Presbyterian unease
in the North. The Old Irish were not happy, neither were the Old
English. It is very complicated here.
In brief on 22nd October the natives attacked the Ulster settlers and
killed 2- 4,000. (The figures were inflated because later people were
able to claim for their losses, and because there was political
capital to make)
While the Presbyterians generally were at first left alone, and
anyway because of the actions of Wentworth many of them had left for
Scotland, Those who remained were subsequently attacked. There was a
Protestant folk memory of the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre in
Money and volunteers were sent over Ulster from Scotland -
10,000 under Robert Munro. Because the Church of Ireland had been
more or less destroyed, it was reorganized along Presbyterian lines,
staffed with Army Chaplains.
The Scottish Parliament had set up the Committee of Estates a
committee of lairds and burgesses who were not members of Parliament,
with wide powers to act on behalf of Parliament, but without the need
to report to it. From 1640-1651 in effect the government.
Argyll was waging a private war with the MacDonalds both Scots and
Irish from 1638.
In England Civil war broke out in August 1642.
Things were getting complicated. A year later the Scots and English
signed the Solemn League and Covenant.
In the mean time the Scottish army in Ireland was getting bogged
down in Ireland. - eventually it was beaten by the Irish in June
In 1644 an Irish expedition linked up with Montrose, and fought
partly for the King, partly against Argyll. This was at first
stunningly successful, but eventually were defeated in the Borders in
Meanwhile the main action was taking place in England.The King
surrendered to the Scots in May 1646.
This was followed by a period of political action which we do not
need to go into. (Including the Westminster Assembly.
In Ireland in the meantime, a confederation of Catholics was set up
1644. Because Ireland was a side show, this was an Irish issue. It
was not until 1647 that the Parliamentarians turned their attention to
The King was executed in January 1649.
The Scots were not happy, but did nothing about (they were too busy
fighting each other) it until having proclaimed for Charles II they
experienced military defeat on 3rd Sept 1650.
Back in Ireland Cromwell arrived in August 1649. Ormond as
Charles II's Lord Lieutenant, with Confederate Support had already
suffered military defeat.
Cromwell carried out a mopping up operation, and left Ireland in
May 1650, getting back to Britain to be come embroiled in the war in
The Scots had another bash at the English and on 3rd Sept 1651
there was the Battle of Worcester which Cromwell won.
Scotland (and Ireland) were subsequently ruled as part of a
In Ireland from 1653 those who had been involved with the
Confederates lost their land, which was given to adventurers
The percentage of land confiscated ranged from 4% in Tyrone to 91%
in Galway (Dudley Edwards)
I don't think that Argyll himself was ever in Ireland. His army was
however made up chiefly of his clansmen, and it is not unlikely that
some of them got to Ireland.
The actual make up of the various armies is a question of dispute.
Remember that there were a dozen armies raised in those 13 years.
How much were the Highlands involved.
Hope that this rather long post answers some questions.
St Nicholas Buccleuch Parish Church Dalkeith, Midlothian Scotland
Visit our Web site http://www.btinternet.com/~stnicholas.buccleuch/index.ht
|Re: Ulster 1642 by "Edward Andrews" <>|