Archiver > GERMAN-BOHEMIAN > 2006-08 > 1155421449

Subject: Re: [GERMAN-BOHEMIAN] Titles found in the Berni Rula cencus of 1651
Date: Sat, 12 Aug 2006 18:24:09 EDT

In a message dated 8/12/2006 2:41:49 PM Mountain Standard Time,

DOMKAR: (also a type of cottier or Cottager) he does not own any land, he
works for a yeoman or farmer, or he practices a craft. Cannot find a proper
German title for this except "Knecht".

PODRUH (hind): does not own a house and lives in a rented flat working for a
yeoman as part of his compensation. The German title for this could be
"Lehrling" (apprentice) or "Knecht" (worker).
There is a good online multilingual dictionary at:

Set the language for CZ-German and then type in the Czech word.

The translation appears below the searchbox.

For Domkar:
domkar - Häusler (der)
domkar - Kötner (der)

They did not show an exact translation for Podruh. They only had

A try with Lehrling (had to change the language setting to Ger-CZ) came up
with the following Czech words:

Lehrling (der) - nováček
Lehrling (der) - učedník
Lehrling (der) - učeň
Lehrling (der) - začátečník
Lehrlinge (die) - učni
Lehrlinge (die) - učňové

I assume these are modern translations. An list of old Czech professions
and trades would possibly have older words for the same.
The article also states: There can be found a special category called
"familiant" in some records - there is not any English equivalent for this word.
Familiants were the users and later the owners of the lord's land after the
lord's estates discerption. (This is when a Cottager became the owner of his
cottage, mentioned above). The area of land was about 1-3 hectares which means
they belonged to allotment holders, cottagers and gardeners.
Is it right to assume that any allocation of the lord's lands to former serfs
(farmers, cottagers) did not occur before 1848-49?

I understand that there was some "compensation" that former serfs had to
make to their noble lords before they could be considered owners of their

I wonder if the people given allotments also had to pay something???
That may have been very difficult for some cottagers, even if it was just
enough land for a nice garden.

BTW, a garden may not have been next to one's house. It could acrually be
somewhere on the fringes of the village with many other gardens.

Some time ago I found a list of Czech and German trades and crafts translated
to English on the Internet. I cannot find it today.

There is one for German trades and professions only at:

If anyone knows the URL for a site like that Czech-English, please post it to
the G-B list.


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