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From: "Aida Kraus" <>
Subject: Titles found in the Berni Rula cencus of 1651
Date: Sat, 12 Aug 2006 13:41:10 -0700


To all who have questions on the titles listed in the Berni Rula:

I am very thankful to the List member who forwarded this excellent description to us but I had a hart time to get it out of the format it was sent to me, so I have retyped it giving you also the German equivalent. Aida

Note:
There are no exact words in the English language that would be exact and accurate enough to translate the counterpart to the Czech nomenclature.
Land dimensions are: 1 hectare = 2.471 acres, and 4 rods are 1 acre.

BURGHER: a person owning a house in a city, a freeman. He is obligation only to the city.

SEDLAK: (Owner of a farm) he owns about 10 hectares of land (about 25 acres) he has an obligation to breed oxen or horses for his master and he employs hinds (Knecht in German) and cottiers (which are people like cottagers where the housing is provided).
Other words for sedlak would be "Bauer" (in German) or farmer, peasant, yeoman

CHALUPNIK: (allotment holder) he owns about 3 hectares of land (about 7 acres,) usually has no horses, he lives on his farmstead, he does not employ other people. The German equivalent would be "Häusler".

ZAHRADNIK: (crofter, gardener) he is a Cottager with a small plot, owns about 1 hectare of land (which is 2.5 acres) at the most and he works for richer people or practices a craft. The German words here are varied, if he own the Cottage he is a "Hausbesitzer" and taxable.

DOMKAR: (also a type of cottier or Cottager) he does not own any land, he works for a yeoman or farmer, or he practices a craft. Cannot find a proper German title for this except "Knecht".

PODRUH (hind): does not own a house and lives in a rented flat working for a yeoman as part of his compensation. The German title for this could be "Lehrling" (apprentice) or "Knecht" (worker).

The article also states: There can be found a special category called "familiant" in some records - there is not any English equivalent for this word. Familiants were the users and later the owners of the lord's land after the lord's estates discerption. (This is when a Cottager became the owner of his cottage, mentioned above). The area of land was about 1-3 hectares which means they belonged to allotment holders, cottagers and gardeners.


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