Archiver > GERMAN-BOHEMIAN > 2006-08 > 1154552475

From: "Aida Kraus" <>
Subject: Re: [GERMAN-BOHEMIAN] Nixdorf to Frankenhausen before 1814
Date: Wed, 02 Aug 2006 14:01:15 -0700
References: <>

La Verne, this looks to me more like a "family situation" meaning that they
were moving to wherever the economical situation was better. In any event
I would read the history around 1814 very carefully to search for a clue
other than family matters. As you can see from this outline there were
still Napoleonic troop movements, and the upheavals of a war, because I
remember that Napoleon was beaten at Waterloo in 1815. This, however, has
no direct bearing on ethnic differences between Germans and Czechs. If
there was, I am eager to be educated. Ethnic sensitivities between German
and Czech were during the Hussite wars, and then later during the religious
war called the 30-years war that tore the entire European continent apart
and the big movement of Panslavism did not happen before 1860. So we have
to hunt of what happened in Bohemia in 1814 or thereabouts. The very best
clues can be gleaned from the History listed under the town's name. And
since you have listed quite a few, I would visit them all. Be sure to spell
them correctly and find their Czech equivalents. Seek them at Wikipedia, on
the German and Czech websites. Here are a few links you may look over to
find your own explanation for the movements of your family. This is hard to
second guess.

Here is a link for German readers.

And here is historical table of these times for all of us to read and file
as this falls into some of your emigration periods.

(Note from Aida: Whenever they refer he to "Austrian Emperor Frantisek"
this is the Austrian Kaiser Franz or Franz Josef of the Habsburg House, as
is Ferdinand. The outline is of Czech origin and they are using the
translated unfamiliar Czech first names rather than the German names as
recorded in most other history books. So don't get confused, it is the same
person you encountered under the name "Franz" or "Franz Josef")

Bohemia 1800-1850

Dec. 1799-Jan. 1800: On behalf of the variance between Austria and
Russia, the Russian army moved from Switzerland into Bohemia to relax there.
The first Russian corps stayed in Central Bohemia, the second Russian corps
stayed in Western Bohemia, the third Russian corps stayed in Southern

end of Jan. 1800-end of March 1800: First and second Russian corps
were moving back to Russia through Praha-Cesky
Brod-Kolin-Caslav-Chrudim-Vysoke Myto-Litomysl-Svitavy-Moravska
Trebova-Mohelnice-Unicov-Sternberk-Moravsky Beroun-Opava-Ostrava-Tesin. The
third Russian corps was moving through Ceske Budejovice-Jindrichuv
Hradec-Jarosov nad Nezarkou-Zirovnice-Pocatky-Batelov-Jihlava-Velke
Mezirici-Velka Bites-Brno-Vyskov-Olomouc-Hranice-Novy Jicin-Frydek-Tesin.

cca 1800-1820: Potatoes became a popular part of nourishment,
especially in lower social classes. Growing of potatoes broke the classic
agricultural system of using fields in Bohemia.

cca 1800-1830: Beginning of the industrial revolution in Bohemia.
Machines were used mainly in the textile industry.

Feb. 9, 1801: Peace treatment concluded between Austria and France in
Luneville. Austria confirmed French land gains in Germany and Italy.

1801: First beet-sugar refinery founded by Rudolf the Earl of Wrbno in
Horovice. Other beet-sugar refineries were later founded in Zaky near Caslav
(1810), Caslav (1811), Libechov near Melnik (1811), Chlumec near Usti nad
Labem (1811).

May 4, 1802: Abolishion of the lifelong military service.

1803: Cylinder tissue printing was applied in the print works in
Varnsdorf (owned by the Stoll brothers)

1803-1807: First steam engine constructed by Frantisek Josef Gerstner.
It was used for students at the Prague polytechnic school untill 1834.

April 1804: First wool spinning-machine applied in the cloth factory
in Brno. It was done thanks to plans copied illegaly in England.

Aug. 11, 1804: Austrian Emperor Frantisek II began to use the title
the Inheritable Austrian Emperor Frantisek I.

Aug. 9, 1805: Austria joined the third alliance against France.

Aug. 11, 1805: Compulsory school attendance applied for the children
in the age of 6-12 years, but it was not followed regulary.

end of Sept. -Nov. 1805: Prussian army went through Silesia and
Moravia into the Upper Austria, through Tesin-Frydek-Novy Jicin-Lipnik nad
Becvou-Olsany u Prostejova-Vyskov-Brno-Pohorelice-Lechovice-Jetzelsdorf.
Amidst of November they were compelled to retrieve back to Moravia.

Nov. 10-13, 1805: French corps, about 7000 soldiers, got to the area
of Klatovy. Other French corps penetrated to Tabor through southern Bohemia.

Nov. 17, 1805: French army moved to southern Moravia and occupied Brno
(Nov. 19). French army stayed in southern Moravia untill January 1806.

Dec. 2, 1805: Battle near Slavkov. Austrian and Russian armies (85 000
soldiers) were defeated by the French army (73 000 soldiers).

Dec. 6, 1805: Cease-fire concluded between Austria and France in

Dec. 26, 1805: Peace treaty between Austria and France in Bratislava.
Austria lost Tirol and Vorarlberg (handed over to Bavaria), Venice in Italy
and Dalmatia. As compensation Austria got Salzburg.

Aug. 6, 1806: Abolishion of the Saint Roman Empire of the German

Dec. 31, 1807: Frantisek Josef Gerstner offered to construct horse
railroad from Ceske Budejovice to Linec. It was built in the years

May 12, 1808: Landarmy founded to defend the country, as military
reserve (men in age 18-45 years).

April 10, 1809: Austria began fights against France by penetration
into Bavaria.

July 1809: French army occupied southern Moravia untill November 1809.

Oct. 14, 1809: Peace treaty in Vienna between Austria and France.
Austria lost Salzburg, area around Inn, part of Carinthia, part of Croatia,
western Galicia, etc..

1809: Historian and philologist Josef Dobrovsky published a book which
became the basis for the modern Czech grammar.

March 15, 1811: State bankruptcy as the consequence of the long
lasting war. The currency decreased to 1/5 of the former value.

June 1, 1811: General Civic Code of Laws valid for all Estates. It
concerned personal law, estate law, common articles of personal and estate
law. Validity from Jan. 1, 1812.

March 14, 1812: Treaty of alliance between Austria and France against

Jan. 28-30, 1813: Cease-fire between Austria and Russia. After the
failed march of French army into Russia, Austria stopped to support

June 1813: Dealing about peace treaty in Opocno and Dresden (Germany).

July 12-Aug. 10, 1813: Prague Peace Congress finished without any

Aug. 11, 1813: Austria declared war on France. Russian and Prussian
armies moved from Silesia to Bohemia.

Aug. 17-31, 1813: French army penetrated into northern Bohemia.

Aug. 29-30, 1813: Battle near Prestanov and Chlumec where French army
was defeated.

Sept. 17-19, 1813: Battle near Varvazov where French army was defeated
and retrieved back to Dresden in Germany.

Oct. 16-19, 1813: Battle near Leipzig in Germany where French army was
defeated (about 40 000 French soldiers killed).

May 1, 1814: Silesian Museum founded in Opava.

May 30, 1814: Peace treaty in Paris. The frontiers of France were
restored to the state valid before Jan. 1, 1792.

Sept. 1814-June 1815: Congress in Vienna. Austria obtained back lost

April-June, 1815: Russian army went through Bohemia against France
(about 114 500 soldiers). They returned through Bohemia between Oct.-Dec.

Nov. 20, 1815: Second peace treaty in Paris after definitive defeat of

July 29, 1817: Moravian Museum founded in Brno.

Dec. 23, 1817: Decree on the new tax system, called "Stabilni
katastr". Validy in Bohemia from 1853, in Moravia from 1851.

Jan. 1, 1818: Czech Museum founded in Praha.

Feb. 8, 1819: Provisional Land Tax, valid from Nov. 1, 1820. For the
land tax measurement the previous system from 1785-1789 was combined with
the "Stabilni katastr".

1824-1827: The Veverka cousins constructed an improved plough.

Feb. 12, 1825: "Sporitelna ceska" (savings-bank) was founded in Praha.

1825-1836: Horse railroad constructed between Praha and Lany.

February 1826: Josef Ressel perfomed successfully his screw-propeller.

March 11, 1827: Restoration of the University in Olomouc.

cca 1830-1848: Second part of the industrial revolution in Bohemia,
spreading into the food industry (sugar industry) and heavy industry
(ferrous metallurgy). Instead wood the new fuel was applied, mainly hard and
soft coal.

Sept. 1831-Oct.1832: Cholera epidemic. In September 1831 it hit
Moravia and Silesia, in October it spread into eastern Bohemia and other
parts of the country.

1833: First paper machine factory founded in Bubenec (part of Praha).

March 2, 1835-Dec. 2, 1848: Reign of Ferdinand I (b. 1793, d. 1875).
In practise, for his mentally deficient indisposition the rule was in hands
of group of nobile people.

1835-1839: In Praha Josef Jungmann published the Czech-German
dictionary (5 volumes).

Sept. 7, 1836: Ferdinand I was crowned as the King of Bohemia in
Praha. It was the last Czech coronation.

1836-1847: Ferdinand´s Northern Railroad built between Vienna and

1842: Burghers Brewery founded in Plzeò.

1842-1845: Northern Railroad built between Olomouc and Praha.

July 8-9, 1844: Attacks against Jews in Praha.

July 11-13, 1844: Attacks against Jews in Tábor.

end of 1844: Illegal club REPEAL founded in Praha. Its prime goal was
patriotical entertainment. From about 1847 it became involved more in

fall of 1846: Convulsion of manorial subjects in 13 localities near
Slapy. They refused to work for the nobility. Most of them escaped into
forests before the army reached them. When their leader arrested, other
returned home.

Dec. 18, 1846: State decree allowed subjects to ransom their labour
duties (done for nobility).

Jan.-March 1847: Convulsion of manorial subjects against labour duties
in the area of Bilovec (northern Moravia).

March 1847: Convulsion of manorial subjects against labour duties in
the area of Senov (northern Moravia).

spring 1847: Convulsion of hungry people in Moravia and Silesia.

1848-1849: National revolutionary movements proceeding in Europe, it
influenced also Bohemia.

1848-1916: Reign of Kaiser Franz Josef I (House of Habsburg)

Sept. 7, 1848: Serfdom and old duties compelling peasants to work on
their lords´ fields were abolished.

June 27, 1849: Additional executive decree concerning the abolished
old duties of peasants, allowed for limited compensation.

Jan. 17, 1850: Temporary Code of Criminal Procedure. It was based on
modern criminal procedure which was to be public and verbal, supported by
independent judges.

March 26, 1850: Commercial and trade chambers founded in important
trade and industrial cities.

----- Original Message -----
From: "LaVerne" <>
To: <>
Sent: Wednesday, August 02, 2006 1:04 PM
Subject: [GERMAN-BOHEMIAN] Nixdorf to Frankenhausen before 1814

>I too have wondered why my gggrandfather Jacob Anton
>PITSCHMANN/PIETSCHMANN, born in Thomasdörf by Nixdorf in 1783 emigrated to
>Frankenhausen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt where he married in 1814. He was a
>merchant of cutlery there, but his father was a Häusler and Viehändler in
>Bohemia. However in his marriage record in Frankenhausen the father is
>described as a Viehändler (cattle merchant) from Bohemia.I know an older
>brother moved to Sondershausen, but a sister was married in Bohemia. His
>father had died by the time of his marriage, so that may have had something
>to do with his moving.
> Any ideas, anyone?
> LaVerne
> ==== GERMAN-BOHEMIAN Mailing List ====
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