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Archiver > GENMSC > 2002-05 > 1022482802

From: "Hugh Watkins" <>
Subject: Re: Lewis Conklin, b. late 1800's, d. early 1950's, Morris Co., NJ
Date: Mon, 27 May 2002 07:00:02 -0000
References: <>, <acfq04$d5q$>

"Kelv" <> wrote in message news:acfq04$d5q$
> > plot. (Philip) John Carpenter was the Carpenter sisters'father; John's
> > wife Hester (Johns) Carpenter is buried there too. Hester was born in
> > Wales, England.
> "Wales, England"? It would be pretty difficult to be born in Wales AND in
> England! Unless her mother had positioned herself on the exact border
> between the two countries as she was about to give birth :)

actually Wales was united with and taken over by England while Scotland and Ireland retained independant legal systems

Monmouthshire certainly appears under England in some records

>> In 1282, during the invasion of Edward I of England, the last native Welsh prince, Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, was killed. In 1301,
Edward's son was crowned Prince of Wales, a title since borne by most of the eldest sons of English, later British, monarchs. Wales
may be regarded as England's first colony, and served almost immediately after the Norman Conquest as a springboard for the invasion
and settlement of Ireland. The part-Welsh nobleman Henry Tudor became Henry VII of England in 1485 and Wales was effectively
incorporated into England in the Acts of Union of 1535 and 1543, English becoming the language of administration, education, and
trade. Although there was a body of Welsh law, the Cyfraith Hywel (Law of Howel), it had been increasingly superseded by English law
from the 13c and after the Union the law of England was applied throughout the country.

The distinctness of Wales has survived integration, but the dominance of England and English, and the ambiguous status of Wales
(administratively united with, but psychologically distinct from, England) have created a tension that centres particularly on
whether, to be truly Welsh, one must know Welsh.



The only remnants of independent Welsh institutions after the Acts of Union, were the Council of Wales and the Courts of the Kings
Great Sessions in Wales, though Monmouthshire was excluded from this Courts jurisdiction and began its long exile as part of
England, which lasted until this century. The Council of Wales lasted until 1689 and the Courts of Great Sessions survived until


Hugh W

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