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From: "Steven J. Coker" <>
Subject: Carolina Huguenot 1670-1680 (pp 7-12)
Date: Sun, 13 Sep 1998 18:35:22 -0400


Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina
No. 5. pp 7-12, Charleston, South Carolina, 1897.
Press of Walker, Evans & Cogswell Co.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS TO No. 5 OF THE TRANSACTIONS.

The Committee on Publication have had the good fortune since the annual
meeting of the Huguenot Society in April, 1897, to have confided to them a very
important manuscript, which is essential to the proper understanding of the
Huguenot immigration to South Carolina, and of the many difficulties encountered
by the refugees before prosperity and competence began to dawn upon the small
number who did not succomb to the ordeals of suffering to which they were
exposed.
It was written by Thomas Gaillard, a member of the South Carolina family, who
removed to Alabama in 1832, where he resided partly in Claiborne County and
partly in Mobile. He there occupied himself in investigations into matters
pertaining to the Reformation and the Huguenot exodus from France, and although
his writings were lengthy, he only preserved the manuscript entitled "History of
the Huguenots of South Carolina and their descendants."
This was completed in 1848, and was copied in 1862 by Mrs. Alice G. Palmer, a
daughter of Col. Peter C. Gaillard.
It is the copy that has been lent us, the original being still owned by the
descendants of Thomas Gaillard in Mobile.
Although the greater part of the manuscript has been included in this number
of the Transactions, there are still certain portions that have been omitted, as
not quite relevant to the subject. Interspersed also among the extracts are
remarks about them by the Committee which are not in different print, but which
the reader will recognize without difficulty as by a different pen.

G. E. MANIGAULT, M.D.
W. H. HUGER, M.D.
W. C. RAVENEL, M.D.
Committee

THE FIRST HUGUENOT IMMIGRANTS 1670 TO 1680.

Chalmers, in his Political Annals of Carolina, says "a considerable number of
immigrants were sent out in January, 1670, in order to form a colony at Port
Royal under the conduct of William Sayle. These, after touching at Ireland and
Barbadoes, arrived safely at their place of destination. The command of Sir John
Yeamans, who had hitherto ruled the plantations around Cape Fear with a prudence
that precluded complaint was extended, in August, 1671, over that which lay
southward of Cape Carteret. The shores, streams, and country being now perfectly
known because they had been accurately surveyed, the planters from Clarendon on
the North and Port Royal on the South, resorted to the banks of the Ashley River
for the convenience of pasturage and tillage, and here on the first high land
was laid during the same year the foundations of old Charles Town, which became
for some years the capital of the Southern settlements."
"The land thus newly occupied was, in the following year, 1672, surveyed and
divided into lots under the direction of the Grand Council. These were
distributed among the immigrants, each one having voluntarily surrendered the
ground he had originally occupied. Among the names of the lot holders, that of
Richard Batin, written variously Baten and Batton, a Huguenot refugee, is
recorded. Richard Deyos and James Jones, believed to be also French, are names
recorded in the catalogue of the original settlers. The arrival of Huguenots was
therefore contemporaneous with the first settlement of South Carolina. These
were doubtless refugees from the persecutions in France, who accompanied Sayle
in the year 1670."
The emigrations of the Hugenots from Europe to the settlements on the Ashley
and Cooper Rivers were at first by individual adventurers. Many of these were no
doubt refugees who had previously sought an asylum in England, and who came with
certain others who were descendants of French Protestants who had been
naturalized in England. It was not until after the Revocation of the Edict of
Nantes that we find any authentic account of their arrival in the colony by
groups or companies, consisting of many entire families associated together for
mutual aid and comfort.
Grants of land could be obtained from the earliest settlement of the country
by payment either to the Lords Proprietors themselves or to the commissioners
appointed by them and empowered to receive the same twenty pounds sterling for
1000 acres and in that proportion for a larger or smaller quantity. The
Proprietcrs as legal owners of the soil accepted of any compensation they
thought proper. The immigrants procured their warrants and, having examined the
country, selected such unappropriated or unoccupied land as suited their
convenience. Under this authority surveys were made and grants were immediately
afterwards delivered to the purchasers. One shilling quit rent for every hundred
acres, to be paid annually to the Proprietors, was reserved in the grant. Such
persons, however, who could not advance the sum demanded by way of purchase
obtained lands on condition of paying one penny annual rent for every acre to
the landlords, etc. (Hewitt's Hist. Acct. of So. Ca.)
Subsequent to the year 1667, the allotment to immigrants was : to each free
person 50 acres of land, and to every man servant and marriageable woman servant
whom he might bring with him, 50 acres more in addition, provided the names of
all such persons were registered in the office of the Secretary of this Province
within fourteen days after their arrival. In the year 1702 the price of land
was graduated by the Proprietors at the following rate, namely: for 1000 acres
near the settlements, not less than £20 sterling. For the same quantity 200
miles distant, or near the mountains not less than ten shillings and twelve
pence a year quit rent for every 100 acres. Lands might be leased in quantities
not above 500 acres, on condition of being settled in four years, at a quit rent
of one pence per year.
From an early period of the settlement of South Carolina, the public records
in the Secretary of State's office, Charleston, are replete with orders of
surveys and with grants of land in favor of Huguenot immigrants. A few of these
will be referred to, viz;
There is the record of a grant to John Bullon, dated August 11th. 1677.
Another to John Bazant and wife, dated September 7th, 1678. To Lydia Barnotte -
same date.
An order to the Surveryor General to lay out for Peter Bodit 600 acres of
land, bearing date July 13th, 1678.
Another for Richard Gilliard (Gaillard), November 2d, 1678, etc., etc.
The first important accession to the population of the colony by the Huguenot
refugees was made either in the year 1679 or 1680. Authorities differ as to the
date of this migration. Chalmers, in his Political Annals, states that "In
April, 1679, Charles II with a munificence that did him honor, ordered two small
vessels to be provided at his expense to transport hither several foreign (no
doubt French) Protestants, who proposed to raise wine, oil, silk and other
productions of the South. He exempted that province from the payment of taxes on
its commodities for a limited time, though the commissioners of customs
remonstrated with a prophetic prudence against the encouragement of people to
move to the plantations, as too many go thither to the unpeopling and ruin of
the kingdom, etc."
Bancroft has made a similar statement on the authority of Chalmers. Simms
says, two vessels filled with foreign, perhaps French, Protestants, were
transported to Carolina at the expense of Charles II in 1679.
In a description of the present state of Carolina, etc. published by Thomas
Ash, in 1682, clerk on board his Majesty's ship Richmond, that was sent out in
1680, with particular instructions to inquire into the state of that country by
his Majesty's special command, and returned the present year, 1682, the writer
informs us that "to enrich the variety of wines to be raised in the colony, some
of the Proprietors and planters had sent there the noblest and most excellent
wines of Europe, viz., the Rhenish, Clairet, Muscadel and Canary."
"His Majesty," he remarks further, "to improve so hopeful a design, gave the
French we carried over, their passage free for themselves, their wives,
children, goods and servants - they being most of them well experienced in the
nature of the vine, from whose directions, doubtless, the English have received
and made considerable advantages in their improvements."
In further corroboration of the date of this immigration being in the year
1680, and the transportation having been made in one vessel only, the Act of
Assembly "for the better encouragement of the settlement in that part of this
Province South and West of Cape Feare," ratified May 1st, 1691, may be referred
to. In the preamble it recites "that great numbers of French Protestants were of
late years forced to fly out of France into several parts of the Christian world
by reason of a severe persecution in that kingdom upon their persons for their
religion's sake, thousands of whom coming on shore in the kingdom of England and
elsewhere, in the dominions of our sovereign Lord and Lady, the King and Queen,
were kindly and charitably received and relieved, and also, for their better
security and subsistence, had many gracious privileges and immunities granted
unto them by their said Majesties, and their royal predecessors, etc. And
moreover, that King Charles II. of blessed memory, one of the Royal Predecessors
of the present King and Queen, was graciously pleased, in the year one thousand
six hundred and eighty, for the encouragement of a manufacture of silk, oil and
wine, to send in one of his own ships of war, several French Protestants into
this country to inhabit and dwell in the same, and their posterity after them,"
etc., etc.
I have found no better authority than the statement of Chalmers, for the
opinion of Bancroft as sustained by Simms, that the Huguenot immigrants were
trasported to Carolina in two vessels in the year 1679 is not sustained by the
authorities quoted. I prefer the unquestionable authority of the assembly, and,
therefore adopt the date mentioned, 1680, in the Act referred to.
This plantation of Huguenot immigrants was alluded to by Samuel Wilson in his
"account of the Province of Carolina, published in 1682." In his remarks on the
cultivation of the vine, he says, "The country hath gently rising hills of
fertile sands, proper for vines, and, farther from the sea, rock and gravel on
which very good grapes grow naturally, ripen well and together, and very
luscious in taste, inasmuch that the French Protestants who are there and
skilled in wines do no way doubt of producing great quantities and very good."
Where this colony was located is not now known, nor has the name of anyone of
them been transmitted to us.
Purchases of land were sometimes made in England from the Proprietors in
person by those who designed to emigrate to the colony. In the journals of the
Governor and Council, commenced in 1670, is recorded an instruction to Joseph
Morton, afterwards Governor, from the Lords Proprietors "to cause to be laid out
to John Monke 1000 acres of land, he having produced to them a note from his
Grace, the Duke of Albemarle, signifying that he had granted to the said John
Monke the said 1000 acres." This order from the Proprietors was dated July 29th,
1682, and registered August 14th, 1683.
There is also on record an order to lay out to John Batton 70 acres of land
for Mary Batton, his wife, ci devant femme de Fostien - she having arrived in
May, 1681. Order dated September 8th, 1683.
The records contain a copy of a joint contract to build a mill in Carolina,
made in London, February 25th, 1686, between Arnold Bruneau, Lord of
Chaboissiere, and Paul Bruneau,* Lord of Rendoux, on the one part, and Joseph
Maryllan, Lord of la Florcet, of the other part, etc. The mill to be erected on
the land of either party without injury or prejudice to the interest of the
other. It is not known whether any of the above mentioned parties ever migrated
to Carolina.
_____________

*The name of Paul Bruneau is included among the petitioners for civil rights of
1696.

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