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Archiver > DENEWCAS > 2003-08 > 1061950434


From: Debbie <>
Subject: [NewCastle] DE Colonial History, 1704-1775, Part X
Date: Tue, 26 Aug 2003 22:14:15 -0400


The elections in 1755 for sheriff and coroner in the various counties
proved the successful candidates to be William GOLDENSHER for sheriff,
and Robert MORRISON for coroner of New Castle County; Caesar RODNEY and
French BATTLE, for the same offices in Kent County; and Jacob KOLLUCK,
Jr. and Paynter STOCKLEY in Sussex. In 1756 war was declared, and
preparations began in earnest. A map of Delaware Bay and River, which
had been prepared by John FISHER, was about to be published, when
Governor MORRIS ordered the publication to be postponed, lest a copy
should reach the hands of the enemy and furnish them with assistance.
The Assembly of Delaware provided for striking the sum of two thousand
pounds in new bills of credit, and on May 20th an embargo was declared
prohibiting any exportation of provisions or arms from either of the
three counties. This latter act, passed in May, expired on July 7th, as
did also a similar law in the province. The Governor at once requested
the province to renew their embargo, but this they stoutly refused to
do, unless the lower counties would continue the embargo passed by their
Assembly. Governor MORRIS went to New Castle to induce the Assembly to
extend the time of the act, but they were only willing to continue it
until July 20th, and from then for as long a period as the province
might pass a similar act, but in no case should the time extend beyond
October 22nd. New York and New Jersey had put effective embargoes into
operation, but unless the barriers existed on every side, the Assembly
of the province held that an embargo would be not only useless, but
harmful to them. The bill was finally passed, although it was the cause
of much displeasure to many merchants, and later brought forth a
vigorous protest from them.

The elections in the lower counties for 1756 resulted in favor of
William GOLDEN and Robert MORRISON for sheriff and coroner of New Castle
County, Caesar RODNEY and Matthias CROZIER for Kent, and John RODNEY and
Wrixam LEWIS for Sussex. A month later, by the beginning of November,
the three counties had organized their militia in accordance with the
acts of the Assembly, and the following commissions were issued: for the
Upper Regiment of militia in New Castle County, New Castle Hundred,
North Division, Captain Richard MCWILLIAM, Lieutenant Nathaniel SILSBY,
Ensign Zachariah LUWANIGH; South Division, Captain Alexander PORTER,
Lieutenant Samuel ALRICKS, Ensign John BRYAN; White Clay Creek Hundred,
West Division, Captain Rees JONES, Lieutenant Samuel PLATT, Ensign
Thomas WILLIAMSON; East Division, Captain Samuel PATTERSON, Lieutenant
Thomas DUNN, Ensign William REID; Mil Creek Hundred, North Division,
Captain Evan REES, Lieutenant James WALKER, Ensign William BALL; South
Division, Captain Thomas GRAY, Lieutenant William MCMEEHAN, Ensign
Alexander MONTGOMERY; Christiana Hundred, Southwest Division, Captain
James LATIMER, Lieutenant Empson BIRD, Ensign Thomas DUFF; Southeast
Division, Captain Andrew TRANBERG, Lieutenant William HAY, Ensign Robert
ROBINSON; North Division, Captain Thomas OGLE, Jr., Lieutenant John
ARMSTRONG, Ensign John HENDRICKSON; Brandywine Hundred, Southwest
Division, Captain William EMPSON, Lieutenant Thomas MCKIM, Ensign John
ELLIOT; Northeast Division, Captain Emanuel GRUBB, Jr., Lieutenant
Benjamin FORD, Jr., Ensign Benjamin KELLAM; Field Officers, Colonel
William ARMSTRONG, Lieutenant-Colonel John FINNEY, Major John MCKINLEY.

The Lower Regiment of New Castle County was composed of the following
officers, commissioned from the places named; St. George’s Hundred,
Captain John JONES, Lieutenant Jerome DUSHANE, Ensign Isaac GOODING;
Captain John VANCE, Lieutenant John VANDYKE, Ensign John ANDERSON;
Captain Adam PETERSON, Lieutenant William WHITTLE, Ensign Alexander
BRYAN; Apoquinimink Hundred, Captain William WILLIAMS, Ensign Garrett
ROTHWELL; Captain Alexander CHANCE, Lieutenant Charles CARSON, Ensign
Daniel WELDON [now WELDIN]; Captain George GANZ, Lieutenant Matthew
RHEA, Ensign Thomas BENNET; Red Lion Hundred, Captain Jacob GOODING,
Lieutenant Thomas TOBIN, Ensign David HOWELL; Pencader Hundred, Captain
Lewis THOMAS, Lieutenant David BARR, Ensign William MITCHELL; Captain
Thomas COOCH, Lieutenant Alexander PORTER, Ensign David ROWLAND; Field
Officers, Colonel Jacob VANBEBBER, Lieutenant-Colonel David WITHERSPOON,
Major Thomas JAMES.

The Kent County militia was as follows: Upper Part of Mispillion
Hundred, Captain Thomas CLARK, Lieutenant Elijah MORRIS, Ensign Joseph
MARRAT; Middle Part of Mispillion Hundred, Captain Robert KILLEN,
Lieutenant Archibald FLEMING, Ensign Samuel BEVINS TURNER; Lower Part of
Mispillion Hundred, Captain Benjamin BRINKLEE, Lieutenant John
MOLLISTON, Ensign Isaac HALL; Town of Dover, Captain John CLAYTON,
Lieutenant French BATTLEE, Ensign James WELLS; Dover Hundred, Captain
CAESAR RODNEY, Lieutenant James SYKES, Ensign Caleb LUFF; Upper Part of
Little Creek Hundred, Captain John BARNES, Lieutenant James TYBOUT [of
Tybout's Corner], Ensign Matthew CROZIER; Lower Part of Little Creek
Hundred, Captain John BRINKLEE, Lieutenant Willson BUCKMASTER, Ensign
Stokely STURGIS; Murder KilL Hundred, Captain Daniel ROBINSON,
Lieutenant Charles HILLYARD, Ensign Benjamin WARREN, Jr.; Lower Part of
Murder Kill Hundred, Captain William RHOADES, Lieutenant Joseph
HUTCHISON, Ensign Thomas CRAIG; Upper Part of Duck Creek Hundred,
Captain David CLARK, Lieutenant John REES(E), Ensign John CAHOON; Lower
Part of Duck Creek Hundred, Captain Charles HILLYARD, Lieutenant Jacob
STOUT, Ensign Thomas TILTON; Tidbury, Captain John CATEN,, Lieutenant
Joseph CALWELL, Ensign James CALDWELL; Field Officers, Colonel John
VINING, Lieutenant-Colonel John BRINKLE, Major Andrew CALDWELL.

The Sussex County militia was organized as follows: for the northern
military district of Cedar Creek Hundred, Captain Benjamin WYNCOOP,
Lieutenant Bethuel WATSON, Ensign Levin CROPPER; for the southern
military district of Cedar Creek Hundred, Captain Thomas HILL,
Lieutenant Issac WATSON, Ensign Nehemiah DAVIS; for the northern
military district of Broad Kill Hundred, Captain John HAVERLOE,
Lieutenant James SHIPMAN, Ensign George C;AYPOOLE; for southern military
district of Broad Kill Hundred, Captain Joseph CORD, Lieutenant William
CRAIG, Ensign Absalom LITTLE; for the northern military district of
Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred, Captain David HALL, Lieutenant Jacob
KOLLUCK, Jr., Ensign John HALL; for the southern military district of
Lewes and Rehoboth Hundred, Captain John NEWBOLD, Lieutenant Rice WOLF,
Ensign Peter MARCH; for the northern military district of Indian River
Hundred, Captain Cord HAZZARD, Lieutenant Peter ROBINSON, Ensign Thomas
PRETTYMAN; for the southern military district of Indian River Hundred,
Captain Burton WAPLES, Lieutenant John BURTON, Ensign William PRETTYMAN;
Field Officers, Colonel Jacob KOLLUCK, Lieutenant-Colonel Rives HOLT,
Major Jacob PHILLIPS.

The returns for the militia of the lower counties summarized the above
as follows: The Upper Regiment of New Castle County contained eleven
companies, with the officers named and two sergeants for each company,
with an average of sixty privates. The Lower Regiment of New Castle
County consisted of nine companies, averaging about fifty privates, but
with the same officers as in the Upper Regiment. Kent and Sussex
Counties furnished twelve and eight companies respectively, and the
officers and privates in each were the same as in the various companies
of the Lower Regiment of New Castle County. From this it appears that
the lower counties organized a force of over two thousand troops. In
1757 the same zeal was continued, the Assembly passing acts for striking
bills of credit to the amount of four thousand pounds for His Majesty’s
use, for punishing desertions and mutiny in the army.

A considerable difficulty arose about the middle of the year in
consequence of the scruples entertained by the QUAKERS against bearing
arms, and their stubborn resistance of the militia laws. The first
instance that occurred was early in January. Christopher WILSON, of
Christiana Hundred, had been summoned by Captain Thomas OGLE [for whom
Ogletown is named], but refused to appear. While seated on his horse,
shortly afterwards, conversing with a friend, Samuel CLENNY, two
constables, William BRADSHAW and Thomas ELLIOT placed him under arrest,
and he was afterwards taken before Justice David BUSH. The justice, with
very little ceremony, ordered him to jail and he was taken to New
Castle. In June, however, a number of complaints were lodged against the
same Justice BUSH. Joseph NICKOLS complained that he had been summoned
to appear before him and state why he had not complied with the
provisions of the militia acts. He assured the magistrate that he was
moved altogether by the dictates of conscience, and not at all by a
desire to disobey the laws; but notwithstanding, the constables soon
appeared and seized a cow. Joshua BAKER had suffered in the same way,
and Ruth MENDENHALL testified that four men had come with swords and
clubs and dealt out a similar fate upon her son. Thomas NICKOLS was
another of the victims. These cases were brought to the attention of the
Governor, and in addition other incidents of a like nature were cited.
Joseph NEWLIN, John PERRY, Jacob ROBINSON, Richard CARSAN, William
SHIPLEY, Jr., and Henry TROTH all complained that their property had
been seized to pay the fines exacted by Justice BUSH for an act which
they held was specially permitted by charter. Governor DENNY took the
matter under some consideration but it was allowed it drop. The
incident at least served the Assembly of the province with a weapon of
defense against the Governor, who had chided them for not being as
diligent in the passage of militia laws as the lower counties.

By the end of 1757 they had nearly four thousand troops organized. A
battery and barracks were also begun late in the year, and the little
government was boldly straining every nerve to faithfully perform its
duty. The embargo was renewed at New Castle and Lewistown in March,
1758, and very soon afterwards Governor DENNY convened the Assembly at
New Castle. In his speech before that body, he informed them that in
letters lately received from England that the King promised to make
every effort at the coming session of Parliament to secure the passage
of an act for compensating the provinces for their efforts in his
behalf, but also requesting all possible assistance at that very
critical moment. The Assembly promised, through Speaker Jacob KOLLUCK,
to do all in their power, and regretted that their means were not
sufficient to allow them to offer as much as their inclinations
prompted. Nevertheless, an act was soon passed for raising a loan of
eight thousand pounds.

In April, 1759, the Assembly passed a bill for reprinting and exchanging
twenty thousand pounds of bills of credit, and for striking seven
thousand pounds additional for His Majesty’s use. Jacob KOLLUCK, William
Armstrong and Caesar RODNEY were appointed to superintend the printing
of the twenty-seven thousand pounds, the bills varying from one to
twenty shillings. They were signed by William ARMSTRONG of New Castle
County, Johns BARNES of Kent, and David HALL of Sussex. Ten thousand
pounds were placed in the hands of the trustees of the loan office in
New Castle County, and for Kent and Sussex, their trustees received
respectively six and four thousand pounds for redistribution. The seven
thousand pounds were placed in charge of Messrs. John FINNEY, George
MUNRO, Caesar RODNEY, Joseph CALDWELL, David HALL and Joseph KOLLUCK,
Jr., and was to be used in the support of one hundred and eight men for
service in the southern colonies, the money being raised by an
additional tax of six-pence on the pound for five years. The reason for
joining together these two measures, which it seemed might better have
been passed separately, soon became apparent. They had pursued the
latter course on a former occasion, but the proprietary had objected to
the re-emission. When the Governor and Council came down to New Castle,
on May 5th, they flatly refused to ratify the double measure, for the
reason named, and also because in the previous year the lower counties
had supported three hundred men, and now had cut the number down to one
hundred and eighty. A conference was held between the Governor and the
Speaker of the Assembly who politely informed him that the House had
resolved to furnish no men at all if they were compelled to alter their
bill. They well saw that the Governor could not afford to reject their
assistance, no matter how insignificant it was. Their calculations soon
proved to be correct, for on the 7th the Council reluctantly ordered the
Governor to sign the bill.

In October the returns for the election of sheriffs and coroners
announced that in New Castle County John MCKINLEY and William SMITH had
been elected; in Kent County, Thomas PARKER and William WELLS, and in
Sussex, Joseph SHANKLAND and Jabez FISHER.



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