Archiver > BURNETT-US > 2001-11 > 1007071190

From: "June Bork" <>
Subject: [BURNETT-US] Saponi Indians; Blacks; Mulattos
Date: Thu, 29 Nov 2001 13:59:50 -0800

I was sent some information on Saponi Indians that had once resided in VA
Piedmont area, especially in Brunswick, Halifax & Mecklenburg Counties, VA.
Some of the family names include: Goings, Collins, Bunch, Gibson, BURNETT,
etc., names that later were known as "Melungeon" in SW VA.

Of interest, in this material is the mention of families from the 1782-85
Pittsylvania and Patrick County, VA tax lists which indicated they were
Occaneechi-Saponi. It could just be that some had mothers or wives that
were Indians. I was very surprised at some of the names mentioned which
should be grounds for further investigation. June


TITLE: Occaneechi Saponi and Tutelo of the Saponi Nation: aka Monacan and
Piedmont Catawba; Includes The Eastern Band of the Cherokee and Lumbee
Nation and Southeastern Indian Nations, etc. Written and compiled by
Richard L. Haithcock, Vicki L. Haithcock

Greetings Relatives, Friends and Librarians :
Allow me to introduce my wife and co-author Vicki L. Haithock and I am
Richard L. Haithcock. We are Occaneechi Saponi Indians. We have compiled the
most complete Cultural, Genealogical and Chronological histories of the
Occaneechi, Saponi and Tuteo of the Occaneechi, Saponi and Tutelo of the
Saponi Nation aka Monacan and Piedmont Catawba and Southeastern Indians in
the Virginias and Carolinas.
The Saponi Indians were an extension or the Greater Catawba
Nation/Southeastern Siouan Confederacy; also included with this three volume
set are tribal histories and biographies of various southeastern Nations;
biographies and photos of the contemporary chiefs of today, and Indian
The Piedmont Catawba occupied and controlled the Virginia and Carolina
Piedmont, due to disease, warfare and white encroachment, they re-occupied
land in the Ohio River VaIley, and ranged into Indiana and Michigan. Some
families removed from Virginia into Pennsylvania and New York.
This book resolves around Southeastern Indian Tribes in the area of
Occupance of the Saponi Nation and the censuses of Indian people recorded
nearby. It includes mergers with the Cherokee, Creeks, Delawares, Choctaw,
Utes, Mowa, Haliwa and Cayuga's of the Six Nation Confederacy, including
migrations into Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New York and Ontario,
The new additions to this Three Volume set includes the photos and a
contemporary roll call of Southeastern Chiefs/Principle peoples: photos of
Southeastern Indians from VA, the Carolinas,Alabama and Blackforks, Ohio
Siouan Community.
This book answers questions like why was I told, I was Blackfoot/Cherokee,
Shashoni and who is Indian?
Written and Complied by Richard Haithcock and Vicky Haithcock

Identifying Todays Occaneechi, Saponi and Tutelo of the Saponi Nation and
Piedmont-Catawba Core family names: example, Haithcock may have evolved in
1673 from Indian John Hasecoll/Hasecott to Hayscock/Hesscott in 1728 to
Haithcock, Hethcock to Haith, Hathcock arid Heathcock to present. THE Saponi
Nation consist primarily of the Saponi arid the Piedmont-
Catawba, Tutelo and the surviving Occaneechi from Bacon's Rebellion, Fort
Christianna arid Junntapurse. Their ancestoral names are Jeffries, Stewart,
Scott, Chavis, Buck, Teteli, Hays, Corn, Guy, Watkins, Day, Branham, Jones,
Haith, Haithcock, Burnett, Griffen, Oakey, Goings, Collins, Gibson, Bunch,
Poythress, Whitmore, Mayo, Bullen, Harris, Coker, Parker, Pettiford and
Liggins. They can be found in Greensville, Brunswick, Halifax and
Mecklenburg Counties, Virginia; Caswell, Orange, Alamance, Cabarrus, Stanly,
Person, Granville, Halifax and Northampton Counties, North Carolina and in
Ross, Lawrence, Gallia, Highland, Jackson, Fayette, Greene and Pike
Counties, Ohio and Hamilton, Vigo, Randolph Co.'s, Indiana and in Cass Co.,

Eno-Occaneechi Indians are part of the Sapooi flation. They are the
descendents of the Occaneechi who survived Bacons rebellion of 1676, and
those who settled in Fort Christianna in Virginia along with the Tutelo and
Saponi Indians forming the Saponi Nation in 1713. The core family names are
Jefferies, Haith, Goings, Collins, Bunch, Gibson, Haithcock, Liggons,
Stewart, Harris, Jones, Guy, Corn, Whitmore, Watkins, Hays, Pettiford,
Scott, Burnett, Parker. and Chavis.

Tribal Chief of the Occaneechi Indian Tribe is Chief Joel Bass/Chief Early
Eagle, they have family in Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Indiana and

Indians with Saponi origins have the surnames Chavis, Braveboy, Ransome,
Burnett, Gibson, Austin1 Hammons, Mayo, Coins, Collins, Revells, Scott, Guy,
Sweat, Taborn, Payne, Green, Bullen, Brewer and Simmons. They shared
Occaneechi-Saponi origins, before amalgamating with other tribes forming the
Lumbee Nation.

See Material on Saponi-Powhatans/aka Meulungines. Collins, Gibson, Coings,
Coins, Coens, and Bunch.

The Moncans also known historically as the Saponi, Tutelo, Occaneechi and
Monacan by Capt. John Smith at Jamestown, Virginia. The Monacans shared the
same ancestoral past as the Saponi. Monacan Core family names are: Hicks,
Redcross, Johns, Beverly and Branham.

1705 - Virginia

Explicit legal (statutory) definitions of the term "Mulatto" are
surprisingly few in the colonial period. General usage will be examined
below, but first it is necessary to review those explicit references which
do exist. We shall begin with Virginia, because that colony is thought to
have exercised considerable influence on other areas. In 1705 Virginia
prohibited any "negro, mulatto, or Indian" from holding any public office.
The act further stated: and for clearing all manner of doubts which
hereafter may happen to arise upon the construction of this act, or any
other act, who shall be accounted a mulatto: be it (etc.), that the child of
an Indian, and the child, grandchild, or great grandchild or a negro shall
be deemed, accounted, held, and taken to be a mulatto. In other words, an
American-European mixed-blood was defined as a mulatto, along with all
part-Africans to the one-eighth degree. This statute apparently remained
unmodified until 1785 when it was enacted that all persons with "one-fourth
or more Negro blood shall... .be deemed a mulatto". This remained the legal
definition until 1866 when it was modified: "Every person having one-fourth
or more Negro blood shall be deemed a colored person, and every person not a
colored person having one-fourth or more Indian blood shall be deemed an
Indian." This use of "colored person" must be considered in relation to an
1860 statute using "mulatto" for persons of one-fourth African descent and
making "negro" and "mulatto" equivalent in all statutes.It would appear,
then, that from 1705 until 1866 the only legal definition applying to mixed
native Americans (excepting those having one-fourth or more African
ancestry) was that of 1705. Thus we might at first glance construe that a
mixed American-European was legally a mulatto if of one-half or more
American blood until that statute of 1866 making such persons "Indians".
All American-African mixed bloods remained mulattoes throughout the period,
unless having less than one-eighth African ancestry (1705-85) or less than
one-quarter African ancestry (1785-1910). After 1910 Virginia reclassified
large numbers of persons by extending the "colored" category to include
people with minute amounts of African ancestry.

1753 -Various tax list for Orange Co., N.C. include several families
surnames of mulattoes such as: Bunch, Gibson, Collins and Goings;
approximately 30 Saponi lived in Granville Co., N.C. in 1755.

I Refer to the surname list of Grainger and Hawkins Co's., Tennessee.

OCCANEECHI-SAPONI and others recorded on the Pittsyvania County,VA.
David Harris
Henry Mitchell
Joseph Harris
John Bird
Charles Oakes
Thomas Payne
Isaiah Watkins
William Payne
William Oakes
James George
James Oakes
John George
Ellinor Norton
Thos. Wynne
William Watkins
John Wynne
James Read
Robert Wynne
James Burnett
Seth Going
William Read
James Colley
Henry Burnett
Nathan Jones
Gilbert Burnett
John Watkins
Ben Terry
Nimrod Scott
Gedion Ragland
Moses Ayres
Michael Mitchell
Wm. York
Bartlett Colley
Gideon Ragland
Mathew Wynn
Peter Martin
Nelly Norton
John Craddock
Jacob Norton
Thomas Lester
Peyton Wade
James Mitchell
Killian Kreek
John McGeehee
Joseph Austen
John Stewart
Thomas Gibson
Martha Stewart
James Brewer
John Watkins
Henry Rawlins
Julius Gibson
Thomas Johns
Hugh Mahoon
Jacob Cooley
John Bolling
Anne Roane
Robert Payne
Thomas Collins
Samuel Harris
Wm. Pigg
Peyton Wade
Ann Pigg
James Walker
Hezakiab Pigg
Wm. Parker
Wm. Oakes
Ben Henson
James Oakes
Wm. Henson
Jno Cummins
James Mitchell
Isaih Watkins
Elisha Walker
Samuel Lewis
Edward Wade
Daniel Collins
John Lawson
James Dear
Jonas Lawson
Joseph Dear
John Martin
Wm. Lawson
Nath'l. Thacker
Daniel Oakes
Joseph Thacker
James Mitchell
Edmund Payne
Hugh Reynolds
Phill Payne
Joseph Reynolds
Reubin Pain
Elisha Walker
Thomas Collins
Suffiah Going
William Mitchell
Sherwood Toney

1780 - Virginia

In Virginia one finds that all of the Indians of the central tidewater
counties were classified as "M", including the residents of the Pamunkey and
Mattaponi reservations, with a few exceptions in King William County where
one or two were classified as "B". (The "B" should be placed in context,
since early Virginia tax-rolls (such as those of the 1780s) divided all
tithable persons between "white souls" and "black souls". The term "black"
or "B" is, therefore, open to various interpretations.)

In the same year there is testimony from the Robeson County attorney before
a Congressional committee in which he says that "the Mulattoes" of Robeson,
as he termed the Lumbees, "were a mixture of Cherokee and Portuguese"

The situation historically in North Carolina tax records and other document
is summarized by Robert K. Thomas as follows (for the Lumbee people): Most
individuals are listed most commonly as Mulattoes. In that time in North
Carolina the legal category Mulatto meant having one white parent and one
non-white parent. The non-white parents could be either Indian or Negro.
Some individuals in these families are listed as white, a few are listed as
black, and occasionally an individual is listed as an Indian.... this meant
full-blood Indian... .by definition, a mixed-blood Indian would be a

1830 - Tennessee
A similar situation existed in Tennessee where the so-called Melungeon
people (probably Saponi-Powhatan) of Hawkins, Grainger and nearby counties
were often classed as 'free colored" and mulatto, but occasionally also as

Saponi, Tutelo, Catawba and others in Montgomery County, New York, 1790
Jno Sweet Ezekel Scott
James Hadlock Win. Buckland
Marcus Marsh John Buckland
Nathan Lane Daniel Parker
Anna Stewart John Hadcock (Hathcock)
Elijah Mayo Nath'l. Dodge
Ezra Eaton Elijah Stackweather
Ebenezer Wyth Phillip Paine
Anson Cary Francis Commings
Nehemiah Crowfoot Thomas Manly
Eziekel Croker John Antes (Artes)
James Brink Joseph Harris Enos Tubbs James Harris
Joab Enos Parson Whitmore
Ebenezer Eaton Oliver Collins
Daniel Hawks Samuel Collins
Seth Allen Rice Hawley
John Hitchins Amos Whitmore
Marshall Kyes Ansel White
Isaac Puffer John Eno
Samuel Oaks Elisha Kane
Caleb Sweet Joshua Paine
James McKeil Benj. Case
Philip Helmer Samuel Thorne
John Shaves Adam 'rum (Tom)
Win. Y. Thtle Henry Haze (Hayes)
Win. Fagan Daniel Headcock (Heathcock)
Abijah Enos David Scott
John Ayres Andrew Fact
Noah Hecock Daniel Parker
Lodowick Jeffers Peletiah Whitmore
Robert Stewart Robert Harris
George Sheep Daniel Harris
Jacob Link Elijah Scott
Win. Harris Nathan Lane
Abijah Fort
Noses Witt
Ebenezer Chivers
Josiah Drury
Seabury Brannan
Kirkland Griffen
David Bullen
Timithy Thttle
Nath'l. Griffin
Simeon Root
Asa Marsh
Samuel Tuttle
John Bullen
Nathl. Austen

1810 Occaneechi- Saponi Heads of Families and others
Patrick County, Virginia - 1810 census
James Boiling William Corn
John A. Corn
Samuel Corn
John Corn Jr. (Mayo)
Elijah Collins
Marvel Boiling
Nancy Corn
Isham Craddock
James CraddockCeorge Corn
Thomas Craddock
Elisha Collins
John P. Corn
Wm. Collins
Daniel Collins
Jesse Corn
Ceaser Finley
Hezekiah Going
John Going Sr.
John Going Jr.
Stephen Going
Wrn. Going

1812 -
Wm. Going Jr.
Burbage Going
Tiliman Loggins
Cam Loggins
Abner Rickman
Wm. Rickman
Wm. Rickman, Sr.
Peter Rickman
Peter Rickman Sr.
John Rickman
Thomas Rickman Sr.
Thomas Rickman
John Strickland
Elijah Upthegrove
Richard Walden
WM. Waidron
Mose Walden

Grainger County , Tennessee - 1830
David Goan Elisha Leffew
Elisha Lefew Pryor Biba
Joseph Lefew Henry Brownlow
Labina Lefew Griffin Collins
Peter Jones Milly Hall
Jacob Clonch Peter Mathes
Condly Collins John Goan
Dowel Collins Thomas Goan
Lewis Collins Nancy Goan
Encey Collins Preston Goan
Hardin Collins Fanny Goan
Andrew Collins Edmund Bolen
Allen Collens Ezekiel Bolen
Moses Collens Shadrack Goan
Joseph Collens Clabourn Goan
Larkin Collens Edmund Bolen Sr.
Griffin Collens Sr.
Levi Collens
Isaac Maxwell

Hawkins CountyTennessee - 1830
Andrew Bean Allen Collins
Charles Bean Simeon Collins
Betsy Coen Jordan Gibson
Burton Cola Polly Gibson
Thomas Hale Jordan Gibson
Solomon Hale Jonathan Gibson
John Collins Jesse Gibson
Aaron Been Vardy Collins
Fountain Goen Timothy WilliamsJohn Minor George Goen
Zachariah Minor William Nichols
Dicey Bowling Mary Collins
Michael Bowling Levi Collins
Wyatt Collins Benjamin Collins
Charles Gibson Benjamin Collins
Andrew Gibson Edmund Collins
Martin Collins Millenton Collins
James Collins James Collins
James Mullens Harvey CollinsBetsy Jones Hardin Goen
Henry Moseley Jordan Goodman
Edmund Goodman

Logan County, Ohio
1830 Census
Jefferson Township
Thomas Hill
James Tayborn
Elisha Bird
Rebekah Spears
Henry Newsom
Turner Bird
Peter Banks
John Newsom
Kichen Artes
Sterling Heathcock
Moss Steward
Zane Township
Miles Beard
Perry Township
Anthony Banks

1950's.- Charles Hudson, The Southeastern Indians
In addition to groups in the Southeast who have a clear claim to Indian
ancestry, there are a large number of groups whose claim is only partial.
These are the "mestizos," "racial isolates," or "little races" that occur in
part of the Southeast. Because these people are said to be racially mixed,
Southern whites have traditionally refused to accept them as white and the
people themselves have refused to be categorized as black. Often the whites
gave them pejorative names, such as Brass Ankles, Red Bones, Dominickers,
and so on. Some of these people, such as the Haliwas of eastern North
Carolina, are in the process of establishing for themselves an Indian
identity. For various social and economic reasons some of these racial
isolates are now beginning to lose their distinctive identity altogether.
After the Southeast was invaded by whites from Europe who also brought in
blacks from Africa, genetic admixture with Indians began, and it continues
today. According to one study, present-day Cherokees show a substantial
genetic mixture with whites; and present-day Catawbas show about 50 percent
white admixture. In contrast, the Seminoles of Florida are predominantly
Indian, with some individuals having small amounts of white and black
admixture. Indian genes also show up in many of the unusual "racial
isolates" or "little races" of the Southeast; groups like the Brass Ankles,
the Haliwas, and the Melungeons.

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